The human organism is a combination based on thought ability living matter. It is complex in its constitution and diverse in its manifestations which is the result of the mutually interacting forces—chemico-physical, vital and mental working in and through the organism.
“What innumerable unknown forces and their laws may there be in operation in the functions of the living organs of which we can form no conception and for ascertaining which we should require many more senses than we have, and these endowed with infinite delicacy”!—asserts Hahnemann.
The human organism presents two aspects—inward and outward. The former is invisible or imperceptible whereas the latter is visible or perceptible to our senses. Though the invisible morbid alteration in the interior and the alteration in the health perceptible to our senses (totality of symptoms) together constitute what we term disease, the totality of symptoms is the only side of the disease turned towards us, this alone is it that is perceptible to us, and is the chief thing that we can know respecting the disease and that we need to know to cure the disease.
Thus the totality of symptoms signify much more to Hahnemann than what they appear to the orthodox school of medicine. The symptom totality cognizable to our senses thus constitutes the outwardly reflected picture or image of the internal essence of the disease. These symptoms are either expressed by the patient himself or observed by the outsiders as sensational, functional and structural changes of the human organism.
In so far as our observations are accurate and complete, our mental associations of symptoms of diverse kinds and grades strictly logical, our mental representation of the disease picture is the closest approximation to the factual reality. Thus empirical truth is also a truth of certain order and this truth can claim as much reality as any other scientific truth if it is based on correct observation, proper experimentation and complete verification through deductive and inductive methods of logical reasoning.
Hahnemann takes his stand on this point of view. He built up a science of semiology which would not admit any speculative hypotheses, wrong inferences or assumptions of half-truths. Facts, to him, constitute the whole truth and not the theories which attempt to explain, interpret or correlate fact-sections which supply the bricks for constructing the different sciences of physiology, pathology, anatomy etc. Thus symptoms are the language and the only language of diseases; and symptoms are the language and the only language of drug-actions on the human organism. So Hahnemann did not attempt to unravel the mysteries of drug-actions or unfold the physiological effects that each drug might be construed to have upon the human system. He saw only the symptoms and to him these were all that were necessary for a thorough study of the drug-pathogenesis.